julio 03, 2008

Ochenta y cuatro mil tipos de emociones negativas


»Las escrituras budistas hablan de ochenta y cuatro mil tipos de emociones negativas. Y aunque no se las identifique detenidamente, la inmensa magnitud de esa cifra sólo refleja la complejidad de la mente y nos da a entender que los métodos para transformarla deben adaptarse a una gran diversidad de predisposiciones mentales. Es por ello que también se dice que existen ochenta y cuatro mil puertas de acceso al camino budista de la transformación interior.

En cualquiera de los casos, sin embargo. esta multitud de emociones pueden resumirse en cinco emociones principales, el odio, el deseo, la ignorancia. el orgullo y la envidia.
»El odio es el deseo profundo de dañar a alguien o de destruir su felicidad y no tiene por qué expresarse necesariamente como un ataque de ira ni tampoco de manera permanente, sino que sólo aparece en presencia de las condiciones adecuadas que lo felicitan. Además, el odio está relacionado con muchas otras emociones, como el resentimiento, la enemistad, el des precio, la aversión, etcétera.

»Su opuesto es el deseo que también presenta numerosas ramificaciones, desde el mero deseo de placeres sensoriales o de algún objeto que queramos poseer, hasta el apego sutil a la noción de solidez del “yo” y de los fenómenos. En esencia, el deseo nos conduce a una modalidad falsa de aprehensión y nos induce a pensar. por ejemplo, que las cosas son permanentes y que la amistad, los seres humanos, el amor o las posesiones perdurarán para siempre, aunque resulta evidente que tal cosa no es así. Es por ello que el apego significa, en ocasiones, aferramiento al propio modo de percibir las cosas.

»Luego tenemos la ignorancia, es decir, la falta de discernimiento entre lo que debemos alcanzar o evitar para alcanzar la felicidad y escapar del sufrimiento. Aunque Occidente no suela considerar a la ignorancia como una emoción, se trata de un factor mental que impide la aprehensión lúcida y fiel de la realidad. En este sentido, puede ser considerada como un estado mental que oscurece la sabiduría o el conocimiento último y. en con secuencia, también se la considera como un factor aflictivo de la mente.

»El orgullo también puede presentarse de modos muy diversos como, por ejemplo, negamos a reconocer las cualidades positivas de los demás, sentirnos superior a ellos o menospreciarles, envanecernos por los propios logros o valorar desproporcionadamente nuestras cualidades. A menudo, el orgullo va de la mano de la falta de reconocimiento de nuestros propios defectos.

»La envidia puede ser considerada como la incapacidad de disfrutar de la felicidad ajena. Uno nunca envidia el sufrimiento de los demás, pero sí su felicidad y sus cualidades positivas. Por este motivo, ésta es, desde la perspectiva budista, una emoción negativa puesto que. si nuestro objetivo fuera el de procurar el bienestar de los demás, su felicidad debería alegrar nos. ¿Por qué tendríamos, en tal caso, que sentir celos si parte de nuestro trabajo ya ha sido hecho y queda, por tanto, menos por hacer?».

del libro "Emociones destructivas" de Daniel Goleman en diálogo con el Dalai Lama

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